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Title 42 Is Ending. What Does It Mean For The U.S. Border?

Why migration is expected to surge after a major policy shift at the U.S. southern border.

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Title 42, the controversial Trump-era policy that allowed to turn away asylum-seekers at the border, expired midnight May 11, 2023. Under the public health policy, which officials said was aimed to stop the spread of COVID-19, the U.S. expelled migrants more than 2.8 million times. Once Title 42 sunsets, individuals who enter the country illegally will once again have the opportunity to apply for asylum. Many expect border crossings to dramatically surge.

Read on to learn more about who is affected, how lawmakers are responding, and what to expect in the future.

Image by Joey Ingelhart/Getty Images

BY THE NUMBERS: Key Facts About Title 42

John Gramlich
Pew Research

As the debate over the use of Title 42 unfolds, here are answers to key questions about the policy, based primarily on information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Customs and Border Protection (CBP), the agency that oversees the Border Patrol.