Bar graphs are composed of a number of bars which may be either horizontal or vertical and each bar represents a magnitude of some variables with regards to time or space.

**Types of Bar Graphs -:**

**(i) Simple Bar Graphs**

In simple bar graphs, one bar represents only one figure and as such there will be as many bars as the number of observations.

**Example:**

Year: |
1981 |
1991 |
2001 |
2011 |

Population : |
14.6 |
17.5 |
21.9 |
26.9 |

**(ii) Compound/Subdivided Bar Graphs -:**

It consists of sub-divided bars and each subdivision represents a component of the total magnitude at the given variable.

In a bar more than 2 components can be shown depending on the data.

**Example:**

State |
Workers |
Non-Workers |
Total |

A.P |
15 |
08 |
23 |

W.B |
11 |
11 |
22 |

ODISHA |
06 |
07 |
13 |

**(iii) Percentage Bar Graphs -:**

In percentage bar graphs each component is expressed as a percentage of the data.

This is also one type of compound bar graphs.

**Example -:**

Year |
|||

Item |
1991 |
1992 |
1993 |

Wheat |
43.0 | 53.1 | 50 |

Barley |
22.8 | 17.3 | 18.6 |

Oats |
34.8 | 29.6 | 31.4 |

Total |
100 |
100 |
100 |

**(iv) Multiple Bar Graphs -:**

It consists of bars representing aggregates of two or more interrelated variables.

**Example -:**

Years |
Imports |
Exports |

1991 | 7930 | 4260 |

1992 | 8850 | 5225 |

1993 | 9780 | 6150 |

**(v) Deviation Bar Graphs -:**

It is used to show certain quantities which have both positive and negative values, such as profit and loss, surplus and slack, import and export, etc.

For readily recognizability the positive and negative values are shown in two opposite directions.

** Example -:**

Villages |
2001 |
2011 |
Difference |

A | 200 | 250 | +50 |

B | 300 | 340 | +40 |

C | 300 | 290 | -10 |

D | 400 | 420 | +20 |

E | 340 | 290 | -50 |

**Histograms -:**

The diagrams of the continuous rectangles are called Histograms.

**Example -:**

Age |
Frequency |

10-20 | 4 |

20-30 | 7 |

30-40 | 5 |

40-50 | 4 |

50-60 | 3 |

67-70 | 2 |

Total |
25 |

**Cartograms -:**

A cartogram is a map. But a cartogram is a unique type of map because it combines statistical data with geographical location. Physical maps show relative area, distance and terrain, but they do not provide any data about the inhabits of a place.

**Examples -:** Maps of any countries states etc.

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